1

{*scalar type*}
*Scalar* types comprise enumeration types, integer
types, and real types. {*discrete type*}
Enumeration types and integer types are called *discrete*
types; {*position number*} each
value of a discrete type has a *position number* which is an integer
value. {*numeric type*} Integer
types and real types are called *numeric* types. [All scalar types
are ordered, that is, all relational operators are predefined for their
values.]

2

3

3.a

4

{*range*}
{*lower bound (of
a range)*} {*upper
bound (of a range)*} {*type
of a range*} A *range* has a *lower
bound* and an *upper bound* and specifies a subset of the values
of some scalar type (the *type of the range*). A range with lower
bound L and upper bound R is described by “L .. R”. {*null
range*} If R is less than L, then the range
is a *null range*, and specifies an empty set of values. Otherwise,
the range specifies the values of the type from the lower bound to the
upper bound, inclusive. {*belong (to a
range)*} A value *belongs* to a range
if it is of the type of the range, and is in the subset of values specified
by the range. {*satisfies (a range constraint)*
[partial]} A value *satisfies* a range
constraint if it belongs to the associated range. {*included
(one range in another)*} One range is *included*
in another if all values that belong to the first range also belong to
the second.

5

{*expected type (range_constraint
range)* [partial]} For a subtype_indication
containing a range_constraint,
either directly or as part of some other scalar_constraint,
the type of the range
shall resolve to that of the type determined by the subtype_mark
of the subtype_indication.
{*expected type (range simple_expressions)*
[partial]} For a range
of a given type, the simple_expressions
of the range
(likewise, the simple_expressions
of the equivalent range
for a range_attribute_reference)
are expected to be of the type of the range.

5.a

5.b

We say "the expected type is ..."
or "the type is expected to be ..." depending on which reads
better. They are fundamentally equivalent, and both feed into the type
resolution rules of clause 8.6.

5.c

In some cases, it doesn't work to use expected
types. For example, in the above rule, we say that the “type of
the range
shall resolve to ...” rather than “the expected type for
the range
is ...”. We then use “expected type” for the bounds.
If we used “expected” at both points, there would be an ambiguity,
since one could apply the rules of 8.6 either
on determining the type of the range, or on determining the types of
the individual bounds. It is clearly important to allow one bound to
be of a universal type, and the other of a specific type, so we need
to use “expected type” for the bounds. Hence, we used “shall
resolve to” for the type of the range as a whole. There are other
situations where “expected type” is not quite right, and
we use “shall resolve to” instead.

6

{*base range (of a
scalar type)* [distributed]} The *base
range* of a scalar type is the range of finite values of the type
that can be represented in every unconstrained object of the type; it
is also the range supported at a minimum for intermediate values during
the evaluation of expressions involving predefined operators of the type.

6.a

6.b

6.c

6.d

7

{*constrained (subtype)*}
{*unconstrained (subtype)*}
[A constrained scalar subtype is one to which a range
constraint applies.] {*range (of a scalar
subtype)*} The *range* of a constrained
scalar subtype is the range associated with the range constraint of the
subtype. The *range* of an unconstrained scalar subtype is the base
range of its type.

8

{*compatibility (range
with a scalar subtype)* [partial]} A range
is *compatible* with a scalar subtype if and only if it is either
a null range or each bound of the range belongs to the range of the subtype.
{*compatibility (range_constraint with
a scalar subtype)* [partial]} A range_constraint
is *compatible* with a scalar subtype if and only if its range is
compatible with the subtype.

8.a

9

{*elaboration (range_constraint)*
[partial]} The elaboration of a range_constraint
consists of the evaluation of the range.
{*evaluation (range)* [partial]}
The evaluation of a range
determines a lower bound and an upper bound. If simple_expressions
are given to specify bounds, the evaluation of the range
evaluates these simple_expressions
in an arbitrary order, and converts them to the type of the range.
{*implicit subtype conversion (bounds
of a range)* [partial]} If a range_attribute_reference
is given, the evaluation of the range
consists of the evaluation of the range_attribute_reference.

10

11

For every scalar subtype
S, the following attributes are defined:

12

S'First

12.a

13

S'Last

13.a

14

S'Range

15

S'Base

S'Base denotes an unconstrained
subtype of the type of S. This unconstrained subtype is called the *base
subtype* of the type. {*base subtype
(of a type)*}

16

S'Min

17

18

The function returns the lesser of the values
of the two parameters.

18.a

19

S'Max

20

21

The function returns the greater of the values
of the two parameters.

22

S'Succ

23

24

{*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} For
an enumeration type, the function returns the value whose position number
is one more than that of the value of *Arg*; {*Range_Check*
[partial]} {*check,
language-defined (Range_Check)*} Constraint_Error
is raised if there is no such value of the type. For an integer type,
the function returns the result of adding one to the value of *Arg*.
For a fixed point type, the function returns the result of adding *small*
to the value of *Arg*. For a floating point type, the function returns
the machine number (as defined in 3.5.7)
immediately above the value of *Arg*; {*Range_Check*
[partial]} {*check,
language-defined (Range_Check)*} Constraint_Error
is raised if there is no such machine number.

24.a

25

S'Pred

26

27

{*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} For
an enumeration type, the function returns the value whose position number
is one less than that of the value of *Arg*; {*Range_Check*
[partial]} {*check,
language-defined (Range_Check)*} Constraint_Error
is raised if there is no such value of the type. For an integer type,
the function returns the result of subtracting one from the value of
*Arg*. For a fixed point type, the function returns the result of
subtracting *small* from the value of *Arg*. For a floating
point type, the function returns the machine number (as defined in 3.5.7)
immediately below the value of *Arg*; {*Range_Check*
[partial]} {*check,
language-defined (Range_Check)*} Constraint_Error
is raised if there is no such machine number.

27.a

27.1/2

S'Wide_Wide_Image

27.2/2

27.3/2

{*image
(of a value)*} The function returns an
*image* of the value of *Arg*, that is, a sequence of characters
representing the value in display form. The
lower bound of the result is one.

27.4/2

The image of an integer
value is the corresponding decimal literal, without underlines, leading
zeros, exponent, or trailing spaces, but with a single leading character
that is either a minus sign or a space.

27.b/2

27.5/2

{*nongraphic
character*} The image of an enumeration
value is either the corresponding identifier in upper case or the corresponding
character literal (including the two apostrophes); neither leading nor
trailing spaces are included. For a *nongraphic character* (a value
of a character type that has no enumeration literal associated with it),
the result is a corresponding language-defined name in upper case (for
example, the image of the nongraphic character identified as *nul*
is “NUL” — the quotes are not part of the image).

27.c/2

27.6/2

The image of a floating
point value is a decimal real literal best approximating the value (rounded
away from zero if halfway between) with a single leading character that
is either a minus sign or a space, a single digit (that is nonzero unless
the value is zero), a decimal point, S'Digits–1 (see 3.5.8)
digits after the decimal point (but one if S'Digits is one), an upper
case E, the sign of the exponent (either + or –), and two or more
digits (with leading zeros if necessary) representing the exponent. If
S'Signed_Zeros is True, then the leading character is a minus sign for
a negatively signed zero.

27.d/2

27.e/2

27.f/2

27.7/2

The image of a fixed
point value is a decimal real literal best approximating the value (rounded
away from zero if halfway between) with a single leading character that
is either a minus sign or a space, one or more digits before the decimal
point (with no redundant leading zeros), a decimal point, and S'Aft (see
3.5.10) digits after the decimal point.

27.g/2

27.h/2

27.i/2

28

S'Wide_Image

29

30/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
{*image (of a value)*} The
function returns an image* image*
of the value of *Arg* as a Wide_String,
that is, a sequence of characters representing the value in display form.
The lower bound of the result is one. The image
has the same sequence of character as defined for S'Wide_Wide_Image if
all the graphic characters are defined in Wide_Character; otherwise the
sequence of characters is implementation defined (but no shorter than
that of S'Wide_Wide_Image for the same value of Arg).

30.a/2

31/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
The image of an integer value is the corresponding
decimal literal, without underlines, leading zeros, exponent, or trailing
spaces, but with a single leading character that is either a minus sign
or a space.

31.a/2

32/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
{*nongraphic character*}
The image of an enumeration value is either the corresponding
identifier in upper case or the corresponding character literal (including
the two apostrophes); neither leading nor trailing spaces are included.
For a *nongraphic character* (a value of a character type that has
no enumeration literal associated with it), the result is a corresponding
language-defined or implementation-defined name in upper case (for example,
the image of the nongraphic character identified as *nul* is “NUL”
— the quotes are not part of the image).

32.a/2

33/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
The image of a floating point value is a decimal
real literal best approximating the value (rounded away from zero if
halfway between) with a single leading character that is either a minus
sign or a space, a single digit (that is nonzero unless the value is
zero), a decimal point, S'Digits–1 (see 3.5.8)
digits after the decimal point (but one if S'Digits is one), an upper
case E, the sign of the exponent (either + or –), and two or more
digits (with leading zeros if necessary) representing the exponent. If
S'Signed_Zeros is True, then the leading character is a minus sign for
a negatively signed zero.

33.a/2

33.b/2

33.c/2

34/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
The image of a fixed point value is a decimal real
literal best approximating the value (rounded away from zero if halfway
between) with a single leading character that is either a minus sign
or a space, one or more digits before the decimal point (with no redundant
leading zeros), a decimal point, and S'Aft (see 3.5.10)
digits after the decimal point.

34.a/2

34.b/2

34.c/2

35

S'Image

36

37/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
The function returns an image of the value of *Arg* as a String.
The lower bound of the result is one. The image has the same sequence
of graphic characters as that defined for S'Wide_Wide_Image Wide_Image
if all the graphic characters are defined in Character; otherwise the
sequence of characters is implementation defined (but no shorter than
that of S'Wide_Wide_Image Wide_Image
for the same value of *Arg*).

37.a/2

37.1/2

S'Wide_Wide_Width

{

38

S'Wide_Width

S'Wide_Width denotes the maximum
length of a Wide_String returned by S'Wide_Image over all values of the
subtype S. It denotes zero for a subtype that has a null range. Its type
is *universal_integer*.

39

S'Width

S'Width denotes the maximum length
of a String returned by S'Image over all values of the subtype S. It
denotes zero for a subtype that has a null range. Its type is *universal_integer*.

39.1/2

S'Wide_Wide_Value

39.2/2

39.3/2

This function returns
a value given an image of the value as a Wide_Wide_String, ignoring any
leading or trailing spaces.

39.4/2

{*evaluation
(Wide_Wide_Value)* [partial]} {*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} For
the evaluation of a call on S'Wide_Wide_Value for an enumeration subtype
S, if the sequence of characters of the parameter (ignoring leading and
trailing spaces) has the syntax of an enumeration literal and if it corresponds
to a literal of the type of S (or corresponds to the result of S'Wide_Wide_Image
for a nongraphic character of the type), the result is the corresponding
enumeration value; {*Range_Check* [partial]}
{*check, language-defined
(Range_Check)*} otherwise Constraint_Error
is raised.

39.a.1/2

39.a.2/2

39.5/2

{*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} For
the evaluation of a call on S'Wide_Wide_Value for an integer subtype
S, if the sequence of characters of the parameter (ignoring leading and
trailing spaces) has the syntax of an integer literal, with an optional
leading sign character (plus or minus for a signed type; only plus for
a modular type), and the corresponding numeric value belongs to the base
range of the type of S, then that value is the result; {*Range_Check*
[partial]} {*check,
language-defined (Range_Check)*} otherwise
Constraint_Error is raised.

39.a.3/2

39.6/2

For
the evaluation of a call on S'Wide_Wide_Value for a real subtype S, if
the sequence of characters of the parameter (ignoring leading and trailing
spaces) has the syntax of one of the following:

39.7/2

39.8/2

39.9/2

39.10/2

39.11/2

39.12/2

{*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} with
an optional leading sign character (plus or minus), and if the corresponding
numeric value belongs to the base range of the type of S, then that value
is the result; {*Range_Check* [partial]}
{*check, language-defined
(Range_Check)*} otherwise Constraint_Error
is raised. The sign of a zero value is preserved (positive if none has
been specified) if S'Signed_Zeros is True.

40

S'Wide_Value

41

42

This function returns a value given an image
of the value as a Wide_String, ignoring any leading or trailing spaces.

43/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
{*evaluation (Wide_Value)* [partial]}
{*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} For
the evaluation of a call on S'Wide_Value for an enumeration subtype S,
if the sequence of characters of the parameter (ignoring leading and
trailing spaces) has the syntax of an enumeration literal and if it corresponds
to a literal of the type of S (or corresponds to the result of S'Wide_Image
for a value nongraphic
character of the type), the result is the corresponding enumeration
value; {*Range_Check* [partial]}
{*check, language-defined
(Range_Check)*} otherwise Constraint_Error
is raised. For a numeric subtype S, the evaluation
of a call on S'Wide_Value with *Arg* of type Wide_String is equivalent
to a call on S'Wide_Wide_Value for a corresponding *Arg* of type
Wide_Wide_String.

43.a/2

43.a.1/2

43.b/2

44/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
{*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} For
the evaluation of a call on S'Wide_Value (or S'Value) for an integer
subtype S, if the sequence of characters of the parameter (ignoring leading
and trailing spaces) has the syntax of an integer literal, with an optional
leading sign character (plus or minus for a signed type; only plus for
a modular type), and the corresponding numeric value belongs to the base
range of the type of S, then that value is the result; {*Range_Check*
[partial]} {*check,
language-defined (Range_Check)*} otherwise
Constraint_Error is raised.

44.a/2

45/2

For
the evaluation of a call on S'Wide_Value (or S'Value) for a real subtype
S, if the sequence of characters of the parameter (ignoring leading and
trailing spaces) has the syntax of one of the following:

46/2

47/2

48/2

49/2

50/2

51/2

{*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} with
an optional leading sign character (plus or minus), and if the corresponding
numeric value belongs to the base range of the type of S, then that value
is the result; {*Range_Check* [partial]}
{*check, language-defined
(Range_Check)*} otherwise Constraint_Error
is raised. The sign of a zero value is preserved (positive if none has
been specified) if S'Signed_Zeros is True.

52

S'Value

53

54

This function returns a value given an image
of the value as a String, ignoring any leading or trailing spaces.

55/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
{*evaluation (Value)* [partial]}
{*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} For
the evaluation of a call on S'Value for an enumeration subtype S, if
the sequence of characters of the parameter (ignoring leading and trailing
spaces) has the syntax of an enumeration literal and if it corresponds
to a literal of the type of S (or corresponds to the result of S'Image
for a value of the type), the result is the corresponding enumeration
value; {*Range_Check* [partial]}
{*check, language-defined
(Range_Check)*} otherwise Constraint_Error
is raised. For a numeric subtype S, the evaluation of a call on S'Value
with *Arg* of type String is equivalent to a call on S'Wide_Wide_Value Wide_Value
for a corresponding *Arg* of type Wide_Wide_String Wide_String.

55.a/2

56/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
An implementation may extend the Wide_Wide_Value,
Wide_Value, [Wide_Value,
Value, Wide_Wide_Image, Wide_Image,
and Image] attributes of a floating point type to support special values
such as infinities and NaNs.

56.a/2

56.b

NOTES

57

21 The evaluation of S'First or S'Last
never raises an exception. If a scalar subtype S has a nonnull range,
S'First and S'Last belong to this range. These values can, for example,
always be assigned to a variable of subtype S.

57.a

58

22 For a subtype of a scalar type, the
result delivered by the attributes Succ, Pred, and Value might not belong
to the subtype; similarly, the actual parameters of the attributes Succ,
Pred, and Image need not belong to the subtype.

59

23 For any value V (including any nongraphic
character) of an enumeration subtype S, S'Value(S'Image(V)) equals V,
as do does
S'Wide_Value(S'Wide_Image(V)) and S'Wide_Wide_Value(S'Wide_Wide_Image(V)).
None of these expressions Neither
expression ever raise raises
Constraint_Error.

60

61

-10 .. 10

X .. X + 1

0.0 .. 2.0*Pi

Red .. Green --* see 3.5.1*

1 .. 0 --* a null range*

Table'Range --* a range attribute reference (see 3.6)*

X .. X + 1

0.0 .. 2.0*Pi

Red .. Green --

1 .. 0 --

Table'Range --

62

63

63.a/1

{*incompatibilities with Ada 83*} S'Base
is no longer defined for nonscalar types. One conceivable existing use
of S'Base for nonscalar types is S'Base'Size where S is a generic formal
private type. However, that is not generally useful because the actual
subtype corresponding to S might be a constrained array or discriminated
type, which would mean that S'Base'Size might very well overflow (for
example, S'Base'Size where S is a constrained subtype of String will
generally be 8 * (Integer'Last + 1)). For derived discriminated types
that are packed, S'Base'Size might not even be well defined if the first
subtype is constrained, thereby allowing some amount of normally required
“dope” to have been squeezed out in the packing. Hence our
conclusion is that S'Base'Size is not generally useful in a generic,
and does not justify keeping the attribute Base for nonscalar types just
so it can be used as a prefix prefix.

63.b

{*extensions to Ada 83*} The
attribute S'Base for a scalar subtype is now permitted anywhere a subtype_mark
is permitted. S'Base'First .. S'Base'Last is the base range of the type.
Using an attribute_definition_clause,
one cannot specify any subtype-specific attributes for the subtype denoted
by S'Base (the base subtype).

63.c

The attribute S'Range is now allowed for scalar
subtypes.

63.d

The attributes S'Min and S'Max are now defined,
and made available for all scalar types.

63.e

The attributes S'Succ, S'Pred, S'Image, S'Value,
and S'Width are now defined for real types as well as discrete types.

63.f

Wide_String versions of S'Image and S'Value
are defined. These are called S'Wide_Image and S'Wide_Value to avoid
introducing ambiguities involving uses of these attributes with string
literals.

63.g

We now use the syntactic category range_attribute_reference
since it is now syntactically distinguished from other attribute references.

63.h

The definition of S'Base has been moved here
from 3.3.3 since it now applies only to scalar types.

63.i

More explicit rules are provided for nongraphic
characters.

63.j/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
{*extensions to Ada 95*} The
attributes Wide_Wide_Image, Wide_Wide_Value, and Wide_Wide_Width are
new. Note that Wide_Image and Wide_Value are now defined in terms of
Wide_Wide_Image and Wide_Wide_Value, but the image of types other than
characters have not changed.

63.k/2

{*AI95-00285-01*}
The Wide_Image and Wide_Value attributes are now
defined in terms of Wide_Wide_Image and Wide_Wide_Value, but the images
of numeric types have not changed.

Sponsored by **Ada-Europe**