Annotated Ada Reference ManualLegal Information
Contents   Index   References   Search   Previous   Next 

3.7.2 Operations of Discriminated Types

1
[If a discriminated type has default_expressions for its discriminants, then unconstrained variables of the type are permitted, and the discriminants of such a variable can be changed by assignment to the variable. For a formal parameter of such a type, an attribute is provided to determine whether the corresponding actual parameter is constrained or unconstrained.] 

Static Semantics

2
For a prefix A that is of a discriminated type [(after any implicit dereference)], the following attribute is defined: 
3
A'Constrained
Yields the value True if A denotes a constant, a value, or a constrained variable, and False otherwise.
3.a
Implementation Note: This attribute is primarily used on parameters, to determine whether the discriminants can be changed as part of an assignment. The Constrained attribute is statically True for in parameters. For in out and out parameters of a discriminated type, the value of this attribute needs to be passed as an implicit parameter, in general. However, if the type does not have defaults for its discriminants, the attribute is statically True, so no implicit parameter is needed. Parameters of a limited type with defaulted discriminants need this implicit parameter, unless there are no nonlimited views, because they might be passed to a subprogram whose body has visibility on a nonlimited view of the type, and hence might be able to assign to the object and change its discriminants. 

Erroneous Execution

4
{erroneous execution (cause) [partial]} The execution of a construct is erroneous if the construct has a constituent that is a name denoting a subcomponent that depends on discriminants, and the value of any of these discriminants is changed by this execution between evaluating the name and the last use (within this execution) of the subcomponent denoted by the name
4.a
Ramification: This rule applies to assignment_statements, calls (except when the discriminant-dependent subcomponent is an in parameter passed by copy), indexed_components, and slices. Ada 83 only covered the first two cases. AI83-00585 pointed out the situation with the last two cases. The cases of object_renaming_declarations and generic formal in out objects are handled differently, by disallowing the situation at compile time. 

Extensions to Ada 83

4.b/1
{extensions to Ada 83} For consistency with other attributes, we are allowing the prefix prefix of Constrained to be a value as well as an object of a discriminated type, and also an implicit dereference. These extensions are not important capabilities, but there seems no reason to make this attribute different from other similar attributes. We are curious what most Ada 83 compilers do with F(1).X'Constrained.
4.c
We now handle in a general way the cases of erroneousness identified by AI83-00585, where the prefix of an indexed_component or slice is discriminant-dependent, and the evaluation of the index or discrete range changes the value of a discriminant. 

Wording Changes from Ada 83

4.d
We have moved all discussion of erroneous use of names that denote discriminant-dependent subcomponents to this subclause. In Ada 83, it used to appear separately under assignment_statements and subprogram calls. 

Contents   Index   References   Search   Previous   Next 
Ada-Europe Sponsored by Ada-Europe