1

{*highest
precedence operator*} {*operator
(highest precedence)*} {*abs
operator*} {*operator
(abs)*} {*absolute
value*} The highest precedence unary operator
**abs** (absolute value) is predefined for every specific numeric
type *T*, with the following specification:

2

3

{*not
operator*} {*operator
(not)*} {*logical
operator: See also not operator*} The highest
precedence unary operator **not** (logical negation) is predefined
for every boolean type *T*, every modular type *T*, and for
every one-dimensional array type *T* whose components are of a boolean
type, with the following specification:

4

5

The result of the operator **not** for a modular
type is defined as the difference between the high bound of the base
range of the type and the value of the operand. [For a binary modulus,
this corresponds to a bit-wise complement of the binary representation
of the value of the operand.]

6

The operator **not** that applies to a one-dimensional
array of boolean components yields a one-dimensional boolean array with
the same bounds; each component of the result is obtained by logical
negation of the corresponding component of the operand (that is, the
component that has the same index value). {*Range_Check*
[partial]} {*check,
language-defined (Range_Check)*} {*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} A
check is made that each component of the result belongs to the component
subtype; the exception Constraint_Error is raised if this check fails.

6.a

7

{*exponentiation
operator*} {*operator
(exponentiation)*} {***
operator*} {*operator
(**)*} The highest precedence *exponentiation*
operator ** is predefined for every specific integer type *T* with
the following specification:

8

9

Exponentiation is also
predefined for every specific floating point type as well as *root_real*,
with the following specification (where *T* is *root_real*
or the floating point type):

10

11

{*exponent*}
The right operand of an exponentiation is the *exponent*.
The expression X**N with the value of the exponent N positive is equivalent
to the expression X*X*...X (with N–1 multiplications) except that
the multiplications are associated in an arbitrary order. With N equal
to zero, the result is one. With the value of N negative [(only defined
for a floating point operand)], the result is the reciprocal of the result
using the absolute value of N as the exponent.

11.a

12

{*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} The
implementation of exponentiation for the case of a negative exponent
is allowed to raise Constraint_Error if the intermediate result of the
repeated multiplications is outside the safe range of the type, even
though the final result (after taking the reciprocal) would not be. (The
best machine approximation to the final result in this case would generally
be 0.0.)

NOTES

13

19 {*Range_Check*
[partial]} {*check,
language-defined (Range_Check)*} As implied
by the specification given above for exponentiation of an integer type,
a check is made that the exponent is not negative. {*Constraint_Error
(raised by failure of run-time check)*} Constraint_Error
is raised if this check fails.

13.a.1/1

{*8652/0100*}
{*AI95-00018-01*}
{*inconsistencies with Ada 83*} The
definition of "**" allows arbitrary association of the multiplications
which make up the result. Ada 83 required left-to-right associations
(confirmed by AI83-00137). Thus it is possible that "**" would
provide a slightly different (and more potentially accurate) answer in
Ada 95 than in the same Ada 83 program.

13.a

We now show the specification for "**"
for integer types with a parameter subtype of Natural rather than Integer
for the exponent. This reflects the fact that Constraint_Error is raised
if a negative value is provided for the exponent.

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