Rationale for Ada 2005

John Barnes
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5.1 Ada Issues: Tasking and Real-Time

The WG9 guidance document [1] identifies real-time systems as an important area. It says
"The main purpose of the Amendment is to address identified problems in Ada that are interfering with Ada's usage or adoption, especially in its major application areas (such as high-reliability, long-lived real-time and/or embedded applications and very large complex systems). The resulting changes may range from relatively minor, to more substantial."
It then identifies the inclusion of the Ravenscar profile [4] (for predictable real-time) as a worthwhile addition and then asks the ARG to pay particular attention to
Improvements that will maintain or improve Ada's advantages, especially in those user domains where safety and criticality are prime concerns. Within this area it cites as high priority, improvements in the real-time features and improvements in the high integrity features.
Ada 2005 does indeed make many improvements in the real-time area and includes the Ravenscar profile as specifically mentioned. The following Ada Issues cover the relevant changes and are described in detail in this chapter:
249
Ravenscar profile for high-integrity systems
265
Partition elaboration policy for high-integrity systems
266
Task termination procedure
297
Timing events
298
Non-preemptive dispatching
305
New pragma and restrictions for real-time systems
307
Execution-time clocks
321
Definition of dispatching policies
327
Dynamic ceiling priorities
345
Protected and task interfaces
347
Title of Annex H
354
Group execution-time budgets
355
Priority dispatching including Round Robin
357
Earliest Deadline First scheduling
386
Further functions returning time-span values
394
Redundant Restrictions identifiers and Ravenscar
397
Conformance and overriding for procedures and entries
399
Single tasks and protected objects with interfaces
421
Sequential activation and attachment
443
Synchronized private extensions
445
Dynamic ceilings and interrupt handlers
These changes can be grouped as follows.
First there is the introduction of a mechanism for monitoring task termination (266).
A major innovation in the core language is the introduction of synchronized interfaces which provide a high degree of unification between the object-oriented and real-time aspects of Ada (345, 397, 399, 443).
There is of course the introduction of the Ravenscar profile (249) plus associated restrictions (305, 394) in the Real-Time Systems annex (D).
There are major improvement to the scheduling and task dispatching mechanisms with the addition of further standard policies (298, 321, 327, 355, 357, 445). These are also in Annex D.
A number of timing mechanisms are now provided. These concern stand-alone timers, timers for monitoring the CPU time of a single task, and timers for controlling the budgeting of time for groups of tasks (297, 307, 354, 386). Again these are in Annex D.
Finally, more control is provided over partition elaboration which is very relevant to real-time high-integrity systems (265, 421). This is in Annex H which is now entitled High Integrity Systems (347).
Note that further operations for the manipulation of time in child packages of Calendar (351) will be discussed with the predefined library in Section 7.3.

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© 2005, 2006, 2007 John Barnes Informatics.
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