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13.5.1 Record Representation Clauses

1
A record_representation_clause specifies the storage representation of records and record extensions, that is, the order, position, and size of components (including discriminants, if any).

Syntax

2
record_representation_clause ::= 
    for first_subtype_local_name use
      record [mod_clause]
        {component_clause}
      end record;
3
component_clause ::= 
    component_local_name at position range first_bit .. last_bit;
4
position ::= static_expression
5
first_bit ::= static_simple_expression
6
last_bit ::= static_simple_expression

Name Resolution Rules

7
Each position, first_bit, and last_bit is expected to be of any integer type. 

Legality Rules

8/2
The first_subtype_local_name of a record_representation_clause shall denote a specific record or record extension subtype. 
9
If the component_local_name is a direct_name, the local_name shall denote a component of the type. For a record extension, the component shall not be inherited, and shall not be a discriminant that corresponds to a discriminant of the parent type. If the component_local_name has an attribute_designator, the direct_name of the local_name shall denote either the declaration of the type or a component of the type, and the attribute_designator shall denote an implementation-defined implicit component of the type.
10
The position, first_bit, and last_bit shall be static expressions. The value of position and first_bit shall be nonnegative. The value of last_bit shall be no less than first_bit – 1. 
10.1/2
   If the nondefault bit ordering applies to the type, then either: 
10.2/2
10.3/2
11
At most one component_clause is allowed for each component of the type, including for each discriminant (component_clauses may be given for some, all, or none of the components). Storage places within a component_list shall not overlap, unless they are for components in distinct variants of the same variant_part.
12
A name that denotes a component of a type is not allowed within a record_representation_clause for the type, except as the component_local_name of a component_clause.

Static Semantics

13/2
 A record_representation_clause (without the mod_clause) specifies the layout.
13.1/2
   If the default bit ordering applies to the type, the position, first_bit, and last_bit of each component_clause directly specify the position and size of the corresponding component.
13.2/2
   If the nondefault bit ordering applies to the type then the layout is determined as follows:
13.3/2
13.4/2
14
A record_representation_clause for a record extension does not override the layout of the parent part; if the layout was specified for the parent type, it is inherited by the record extension. 

Implementation Permissions

15
An implementation may generate implementation-defined components (for example, one containing the offset of another component). An implementation may generate names that denote such implementation-defined components; such names shall be implementation-defined attribute_references. An implementation may allow such implementation-defined names to be used in record_representation_clauses. An implementation can restrict such component_clauses in any manner it sees fit. 
16
If a record_representation_clause is given for an untagged derived type, the storage place attributes for all of the components of the derived type may differ from those of the corresponding components of the parent type, even for components whose storage place is not specified explicitly in the record_representation_clause.

Implementation Advice

17
The recommended level of support for record_representation_clauses is: 
17.1/2
18
19
20/2
21
22
NOTES
23
11  If no component_clause is given for a component, then the choice of the storage place for the component is left to the implementation. If component_clauses are given for all components, the record_representation_clause completely specifies the representation of the type and will be obeyed exactly by the implementation. 

Examples

24
Example of specifying the layout of a record type: 
25
Word : constant := 4;  --  storage element is byte, 4 bytes per word
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type State         is (A,M,W,P);
type Mode          is (Fix, Dec, Exp, Signif);
27
type Byte_Mask     is array (0..7)  of Boolean;
type State_Mask    is array (State) of Boolean;
type Mode_Mask     is array (Mode)  of Boolean;
28
type Program_Status_Word is
  record
      System_Mask        : Byte_Mask;
      Protection_Key     : Integer range 0 .. 3;
      Machine_State      : State_Mask;
      Interrupt_Cause    : Interruption_Code;
      Ilc                : Integer range 0 .. 3;
      Cc                 : Integer range 0 .. 3;
      Program_Mask       : Mode_Mask;
      Inst_Address       : Address;
end record;
29
for Program_Status_Word use
  record
      System_Mask      at 0*Word range 0  .. 7;
      Protection_Key   at 0*Word range 10 .. 11; -- bits 8,9 unused
      Machine_State    at 0*Word range 12 .. 15;
      Interrupt_Cause  at 0*Word range 16 .. 31;
      Ilc              at 1*Word range 0  .. 1;  -- second word
      Cc               at 1*Word range 2  .. 3;
      Program_Mask     at 1*Word range 4  .. 7;
      Inst_Address     at 1*Word range 8  .. 31;
  end record;
30
for Program_Status_Word'Size use 8*System.Storage_Unit;
for Program_Status_Word'Alignment use 8;
NOTES
31
12  Note on the example: The record_representation_clause defines the record layout. The Size clause guarantees that (at least) eight storage elements are used for objects of the type. The Alignment clause guarantees that aliased, imported, or exported objects of the type will have addresses divisible by eight. 

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