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9.5.1 Protected Subprograms and Protected Actions
is a subprogram declared immediately within
procedures provide exclusive read-write access to the data of a protected
object; protected functions provide concurrent read-only access to the
Within the body of a protected function (or a
function declared immediately within a protected_body),
the current instance of the enclosing protected unit is defined to be
a constant (that is, its subcomponents may be read but not updated).
Within the body of a protected procedure (or a procedure declared immediately
within a protected_body), and within
an entry_body, the current instance
is defined to be a variable (updating is permitted).
For the execution of a call
on a protected subprogram, the evaluation of the name
and of the parameter associations,
and any assigning back of in out
as for a normal subprogram call (see 6.4
If the call is an internal call (see 9.5
the body of the subprogram is executed as for a normal subprogram call.
If the call is an external call, then the body of the subprogram is executed
as part of a new protected action
on the target protected object;
the protected action completes after the body of the subprogram is executed.
A protected action can also be started by an entry call (see 9.5.3
new protected action is not started on a protected object while another
protected action on the same protected object is underway, unless both
actions are the result of a call on a protected function. This rule is
expressible in terms of the execution resource associated with the protected
a protected action on a protected object corresponds to acquiring
the execution resource associated with the protected object, either for
concurrent read-only access if the protected action is for a call on
a protected function, or for exclusive read-write access otherwise;
the protected action corresponds to releasing the associated execution
After performing an operation on a protected object
other than a call on a protected function, but prior to completing the
associated protected action, the entry queues (if any) of the protected
object are serviced (see 9.5.3
Bounded (Run-Time) Errors
a protected action, it is a bounded error to invoke an operation that
is potentially blocking
following are defined to be potentially blocking operations:
- task creation or activation;
- an external call on a protected subprogram
(or an external requeue) with the same target object as that of the protected
- a call on a subprogram whose body
contains a potentially blocking operation.
If the bounded error is detected,
Program_Error is raised. If not detected, the bounded error might result
in deadlock or a (nested) protected action on the same target object.
Certain language-defined subprograms are potentially
blocking. In particular, the subprograms of the language-defined input-output
packages that manipulate files (implicitly or explicitly) are potentially
blocking. Other potentially blocking subprograms are identified where
they are defined. When not specified as potentially blocking, a language-defined
subprogram is nonblocking.
18 If two tasks both try
to start a protected action on a protected object, and at most one is
calling a protected function, then only one of the tasks can proceed.
Although the other task cannot proceed, it is not considered blocked,
and it might be consuming processing resources while it awaits its turn.
There is no language-defined ordering or queuing presumed for tasks competing
to start a protected action -- on a multiprocessor such tasks might use
busy-waiting; for monoprocessor considerations, see D.3,
``Priority Ceiling Locking''.
19 The body of a protected
unit may contain declarations and bodies for local subprograms. These
are not visible outside the protected unit.
20 The body of a protected
function can contain internal calls on other protected functions, but
not protected procedures, because the current instance is a constant.
On the other hand, the body of a protected procedure can contain internal
calls on both protected functions and procedures.
21 From within a protected
action, an internal call on a protected subprogram, or an external call
on a protected subprogram with a different target object is not considered
a potentially blocking operation.
protected subprogram calls (see 9.4):
E := Shared_Array.Component(M);
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