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1

In the strict mode, the performance of Numerics.Generic_Elementary_Functions
shall be as specified here.

2

When an
exception is not raised, the result of evaluating a function in an instance
*EF* of Numerics.Generic_Elementary_Functions belongs to a *result
interval*, defined as the smallest model interval of *EF*.Float_Type
that contains all the values of the form *f* · (1.0 + *d*),
where *f* is the exact value of the corresponding mathematical function
at the given parameter values, *d* is a real number, and |*d*|
is less than or equal to the function's *maximum relative error*.
The function delivers a value
that belongs to the result interval when both of its bounds belong to
the safe range of *EF*.Float_Type; otherwise,

3

- if
*EF*.Float_Type'Machine_Overflows is True, the function either delivers a value that belongs to the result interval or raises Constraint_Error, signaling overflow;

4

- if
*EF*.Float_Type'Machine_Overflows is False, the result is implementation defined.

5

The maximum relative
error exhibited by each function is as follows:

6

- 2.0 ·
*EF*.Float_Type'Model_Epsilon, in the case of the Sqrt, Sin, and Cos functions;

7

- 4.0 ·
*EF*.Float_Type'Model_Epsilon, in the case of the Log, Exp, Tan, Cot, and inverse trigonometric functions; and

8

- 8.0 ·
*EF*.Float_Type'Model_Epsilon, in the case of the forward and inverse hyperbolic functions.

9

The maximum relative error exhibited by the exponentiation
operator, which depends on the values of the operands, is (4.0 +
|Right · log(Left)| / 32.0) · *EF*.Float_Type'Model_Epsilon.

10

The maximum relative error given above applies
throughout the domain of the forward trigonometric functions when the
Cycle parameter is specified. When the Cycle parameter
is omitted, the maximum relative error given above applies only when
the absolute value of the angle parameter X is less than or equal to
some implementation-defined *angle threshold*, which shall be at
least *EF*.Float_Type'Machine_Radix ^{Floor(EF.Float_Type'Machine_Mantissa/2)}.
Beyond the angle threshold, the accuracy of the forward trigonometric
functions is implementation defined.

11

The prescribed results specified in A.5.1
for certain functions at particular parameter values take precedence
over the maximum relative error bounds; effectively, they narrow to a
single value the result interval allowed by the maximum relative error
bounds. Additional rules with a similar effect are given by the table
below for the inverse trigonometric functions, at particular parameter
values for which the mathematical result is possibly not a model number
of *EF*.Float_Type (or is, indeed, even transcendental). In each
table entry, the values of the parameters are such that the result lies
on the axis between two quadrants; the corresponding accuracy rule, which
takes precedence over the maximum relative error bounds, is that the
result interval is the model interval of *EF*.Float_Type associated
with the exact mathematical result given in the table.

12/1

13

The last line of the table is meant to apply
when *EF*.Float_Type'Signed_Zeros is False; the two lines just above
it, when *EF*.Float_Type'Signed_Zeros is True and the parameter
Y has a zero value with the indicated sign.

14

The amount by which the result of an inverse
trigonometric function is allowed to spill over into a quadrant adjacent
to the one corresponding to the principal branch, as given in A.5.1,
is limited. The rule is that the result belongs to the smallest model
interval of *EF*.Float_Type that contains both boundaries of the
quadrant corresponding to the principal branch. This rule also takes
precedence over the maximum relative error bounds, effectively narrowing
the result interval allowed by them.

Function | Value of
X | Value of Y | Exact
Result when Cycle Specified | Exact Result
when Cycle Omitted |
---|---|---|---|---|

Arcsin | 1.0 | n.a. | Cycle/4.0 | PI/2.0 |

Arcsin | -1.0 | n.a. | -Cycle/4.0 | -PI/2.0 |

Arccos | 0.0 | n.a. | Cycle/4.0 | PI/2.0 |

Arccos | -1.0 | n.a. | Cycle/2.0 | PI |

Arctan and Arccot | 0.0 | positive | Cycle/4.0 | PI/2.0 |

Arctan and Arccot | 0.0 | negative | -Cycle/4.0 | -PI/2.0 |

Arctan and Arccot | negative | +0.0 | Cycle/2.0 | PI |

Arctan and Arccot | negative | -0.0 | -Cycle/2.0 | -PI |

Arctan and Arccot | negative | 0.0 | Cycle/2.0 | PI |

15

Finally, the following
specifications also take precedence over the maximum relative error bounds:

16

- The absolute value of the result of the Sin, Cos, and Tanh functions never exceeds one.

17

- The absolute value of the result of the Coth function is never less than one.

18

- The result of the Cosh function is never less than one.

19

The versions of the forward trigonometric functions
without a Cycle parameter should not be implemented by calling the corresponding
version with a Cycle parameter of 2.0*Numerics.Pi, since this will not
provide the required accuracy in some portions of the domain. For the
same reason, the version of Log without a Base parameter should not be
implemented by calling the corresponding version with a Base parameter
of Numerics.e.