This part of the reference manual has always been a pot-pourri of bits and pieces often neglected by users and implementors alike. However, it is an important area especially for embedded systems where tight control of the implementation is required. The changes in Ada 95 are designed to make the vague control promised by Ada 83 into a reality. The main changes are
By their nature, these features of the language concern fine detail for which the reader is referred to [RM95]. In this chapter we will only discuss the broad principles involved. Note that the material on interfacing to other languages is now described in a separate annex of [RM95]; see Chapter B in Part Three. Note also that although the general concept of streams and the stream attributes are defined in section 13 of [RM95], their main application is for input-output and they are therefore discussed in A-1.4.
The first point to note is that the notation has been unified so that the attribute form can be used for setting all specifiable attributes. Thus
for X'Address use 8#100#;rather than for X use at 8#100#, and
for R'Alignment use 2;rather than at mod 2 in a record representation clause. (The old notations are allowed for compatibility although considered obsolete.)
An important reason for the unified notation is that we wish to allow implementations to define additional user-specifiable attributes in a consistent manner. Furthermore the annexes define many additional attributes as discussed in Part Three.
The Alignment attribute can be applied to all first subtypes and objects whereas the mod clause only applied to records in Ada 83. An overall rule is that the Address of an object must be an integral multiple of its Alignment. In the case of internal objects the user must ensure that this is not violated if one or both attributes are specified. In the case of external objects, the attributes may also be specified but then they are more in the nature of an assertion; again it is assumed that the relationship holds.
It is now possible to specify the order of numbering bits. This is particularly important when using record representation clauses to ensure that we know which way round the bits are numbered. For example
for R'Bit_Order use Low_Order_First;where R is a record type indicates that the first bit (bit 0) is the least significant.
There was much confusion in Ada 83 over the Size attribute. This is now clarified and the reader is referred to the discussion in [RM95] for details. An important point is that the Size attribute may now be set for individual objects rather than just to types as in Ada 83.
The package System.Storage_Elements contains additional types and operations to enable addresses and offsets to be manipulated in a standard manner. The comparison operators are defined for the type Address in the package System itself whereas other facilities are in the child package System.Storage_Elements.
This latter package includes a type Storage_Offset and operations to add and subtract such values to and from values of type Address. Storage offsets are of course relative whereas addresses are absolute (echoes of duration and time) and so adding a storage offset to an address returns an address and so on.
The generic child package System.Address_To_Access_Conversions provides the ability to convert neatly between values of the type Address and values of a given general access type; this enables "peeking" and "poking" to be done in a consistent manner.
Finally note that the pragmas System_Name, Storage_Unit and Memory_Size are now obsolete. They were not uniformly implemented in Ada 83 and it was not at all clear what they should mean. For example, in most implementations, it does not make sense to change the number of bits in a storage unit, and even if it did, it would not be sufficient to make only the package System obsolete; clearly all generated code depends on this value. Consequently we no longer require implementations to support these pragmas. Of course, implementations that already support them with some particular meaning can continue to do so (as implementation defined pragmas) for upward compatibility. On the other hand the corresponding named numbers in package System are quite useful as queries and so remain.
There are occasions when Unchecked_Conversion is very valuable although inherently dangerous. The Valid attribute enables the programmer to ensure that the result of an unchecked conversion is at least a valid value for the subtype concerned (even if not what the programmer hoped for). Some risks of catastrophe are thereby avoided.
The [RM95 13.9.2] lists the ways in which invalid data could be obtained. As well as unchecked conversion this includes results obtain through interfacing to another language and uninitialized data. Note that Valid is only defined for objects of scalar types.
For Ada 95, we have provided the user with the ability to override the default algorithms for allocating and deallocating heap storage. This is done by the introduction of the concept of a storage pool which provides the storage for objects created by allocators. Every access to object type is associated with some storage pool which is a pool of memory from which the storage for allocated objects is obtained.
The storage pool for an access type may be shared with other access types. In particular, any derivative of an access type shares the same storage pool as the parent access type. More importantly, an implementation might use a common global heap by default. An allocator for an access type allocates storage from the associated storage pool.
The package System.Storage_Pools provides mechanisms for defining a storage pool type as an extension of the abstract type Root_Storage_Pool. We can then associate a storage pool with a particular access type by specifying the Storage_Pool attribute for the access type. Alternatively, a bounded storage pool may be requested by specifying the Storage_Size attribute for an access type, as in Ada 83. In the absence of a specification of either the Storage_Pool or Storage_Size attribute of an access type, the implementation chooses an appropriate storage pool for the type.
Pool-specific access values never point outside of their storage pool (in the absence of unchecked conversion and the like). On the other hand, general access values may be assigned to point to any aliased object of an appropriate type and scope, either through the use of the Access attribute or explicit access type conversion.
The storage pool concept makes explicit the notion of a "heap", and when combined with the ability to specify a Storage_Pool object for an access type, gives the user better control over dynamic allocation.
The use of storage pools is illustrated by the following example which shows how an application can use a special allocator algorithm to meet its precise storage requirements. The storage pool associated with the access type supports mark and release operations, allowing rapid reclamation of all storage allocated from the pool during some phase of processing.
with System.Storage_Pools; with System.Storage_Elements; use System; package Mark_Release_Storage is type Mark_Release_Pool(Size: Storage_Elements.Storage_Count) is new Storage_Pools.Root_Storage_Pool with private; type Pool_Mark is limited private; -- now provide the controlled operations procedure Initialize(Pool: in out Mark_Release_Pool); procedure Finalize(Pool: in out Mark_Release_Pool); -- now provide the storage pool operations procedure Allocate( Pool : in out Mark_Release_Pool; Storage_Address: out Address; Size_In_Storage_Elements: in Storage_Elements.Storage_Count; Alignment : in Storage_Elements.Storage_Count); procedure Deallocate( Pool : in out Mark_Release_Pool; Storage_Address: in Address; Size_In_Storage_Elements: in Storage_Elements.Storage_Count; Alignment : in Storage_Elements.Storage_Count); function Storage_Size(Pool: Mark_Release_Pool) return Storage_Elements.Storage_Count; -- additional subprograms for the Mark_Release_Pool procedure Set_Mark( Pool: in Mark_Release_Pool; Mark: out Pool_Mark); -- marks the current state of the pool for later release procedure Release_To_Mark( Pool: in out Mark_Release_Pool; Mark: in Pool_Mark); -- frees everything allocated from the Pool since Set_Mark. -- all access values designating objects allocated since then -- become invalid. private ... end Mark_Release_Storage;
This example demonstrates how a package defines a special type of mark/release storage pool, derived from System.Storage_Pools.Root_Storage_Pool (see [RM95 13.11]).
Note carefully that the procedures Allocate and Deallocate are invoked implicitly by the Ada 95 allocator and Unchecked_Deallocation facilities in much the same way as Initialize, Adjust and Finalize are implicitly called by the run-time system for controlled types (see 7.4). Moreover, the type Root_Storage_Pool is itself a limited controlled type and so the procedures Initialize and Finalize are provided.
This example includes two additional operations on the storage pool type, which the user can use to set a mark and then later release the pool to a marked state, and thereby reclaim all recently allocated storage. The declaration of Mark_Release_Pool indicates that it is also extended with additional private components that would be supplied in the private part.
In order to use the above package we first have to declare a particular pool and then specify it as the pool for the access type concerned. We might write
use Mark_Release_Storage; Big_Pool: Mark_Release_Pool(50_000); type Some_Type is ...; type Some_Access is access Some_Type; for Some_Access'Storage_Pool use Big_Pool;
This declares the pool Big_Pool of the type Mark_Release_Pool and then associates it with the access type Some_Access by the representation clause. The discriminant of 50,000 acts as an initialization parameter perhaps indicating the total size of the pool. We can then allocate and use objects in the usual way. We can also use the special mark and release capabilities provided by this particular type of pool.
declare Mark: Pool_Mark; Done: Boolean := False; begin -- set mark prior to commencing the loop Set_Mark(Big_Pool, Mark); while not Done loop -- each iteration allocates a data structure composed of -- objects of Some_Type, which may be discarded -- before the next iteration. declare X, Y : Some_Access; begin -- algorithm that allocates various objects from -- the mark/release storage pool X := new Some_Type; ... Y := new Some_Type; ... -- release storage each time through the loop Release_To_Mark(Big_Pool, Mark); exception when others => -- release storage then reraise the exception Release_To_Mark(Big_Pool, Mark); raise; end; end loop; end;
Note carefully that the assignments such as
X := new Some_Type;implicitly call the Allocate procedure thus
Mark_Release_Storage.Allocate(Pool => Big_Pool,...);
Any calls on Unchecked_Deallocation will similarly result in an implicit call of Deallocate.
Certain uses of an entity or the type of an entity cause it to be frozen; these are situations where the representation has to be known (and if none has been specified the implementation will then choose a representation by default). These uses were called forcing occurrences in Ada 83 (the name has been changed because not all the situations causing freezing are actual occurrences of the name of the entity). The forcing occurrence rules of Ada 83 did not really achieve their objective; sometimes they were too lax and sometimes too rigid; the freezing rules of Ada 95 are intended to more exactly satisfy the objective of identifying when the representation has to be determined.
The situations causing freezing and the operations not allowed on a frozen entity are described in [RM95 13.14]. There seems little point in repeating the discussion here but one point of difference worth emphasizing is that the loophole in deferred constants in Ada 83 which allowed uninitialized access values is now blocked. The new rules were designed to overcome this and similar problems with the Ada 83 rules.
The freezing rules for tagged types are important. The two main ones are that a record extension freezes the parent and a primitive subprogram cannot be declared for a frozen tagged type - this applies to both new ones and overridden ones. Using the illustrative model of the tag and dispatch table in 4.3 this means that the contents of the dispatch table can be determined as soon as the type is frozen.
A consequence of these freezing rules is that we cannot declare further primitive subprograms for a tagged type after a record extension of it has been defined. This was mentioned in II.1 during the discussion of the alert system when we noted the practical benefit of being able to declare a sequence of derived types in one package.
But note that although a record extension freezes the parent type a private extension does not. In the private case the parent type is frozen at the full type declaration (which will be a record extension anyway). So in the following
package P is type T is tagged ...; type NT is new T with private; procedure Op(X: T); private type NT is new T with ...; end P;the partial declaration of NT does not freeze T and so the further operation Op can be added. This operation is also inherited by NT although it is not visible for the partial view of NT (since its declaration was after that of the partial view); it effectively gets added at the full declaration. So
A: NT'Class := ...; Op(A);is illegal outside P but legal in the body of P.
Note that we can add an operation, OpN for NT before the new operation Op for T thus
package P is type T is tagged ...; type NT is new T with private; procedure OpN(X: NT); procedure Op(X: T); private type NT is new T with ...; end P;and in this case, perhaps surprisingly, we have added a new operation for the dispatch table of NT before knowing all about the dispatch table of T (which of course forms the first part of the table for NT). However, the full declaration of NT will freeze T and prevent further operations being added for T.
It is instructive to reconsider the alert system discussed in Part One and to rearrange the declarations to minimize spurious visibility. The details of the various types need not be visible externally (we can imagine that they are initialized by operations in some child package). Moreover, it is only necessary for the procedure Handle to be visible externally since Display, Log and Set_Alarm are only called internally from the procedures Handle. However, in the case of Display it is important that it be a dispatching operation if the redispatching discussed in 4.5 is to be possible. The package could thus be reconstructed as follows
with Calendar; package New_Alert_System is type Alert is abstract tagged private; procedure Handle(A: in out Alert); type Low_Alert is new Alert with private; type Medium_Alert is new Alert with private; type High_Alert is new Alert with private; private type Device is (Teletype, Console, Big_Screen); type Alert is tagged record Time_Of_Arrival: Calendar.Time; Message: Text; end record; procedure Display(A: in Alert; On: in Device); -- also dispatches procedure Log(A: in Alert); type Low_Alert is new Alert with null record; type Medium_Alert is new Alert with record Action_Officer: Person; end record; -- now override inherited operations procedure Handle(MA: in out Medium_Alert); procedure Display(MA: in Medium_Alert; On: in Device); type High_Alert is new Medium_Alert with record Ring_Alarm_At: Calendar.Time; end record; procedure Handle(HA: in out High_Alert); procedure Display(HA: in High_Alert; On: in Device); procedure Set_Alarm(HA: in High_Alert); end New_Alert_System;
In this formulation all the alerts are private and the visible part consists of a series of private extensions. If the private extensions froze the parent type Alert then it would not be possible to add the private dispatching operation Display in the private part. The deferral of freezing until the full type declaration is thus important. Note that we have also hidden the fact that the High_Alert is actually derived from Medium_Alert. Remember that the full type declaration only has to have the type given in the private extension as some ancestor and not necessarily as the immediate parent.
We can now add a child package for the emergency alert as suggested in II.7 and this will enable a new Display and Handle to be added.
package New_Alert_System.Emergency is type Emergency_Alert is new Alert with private; private type Emergency_Alert is new Alert with record ... end record; procedure Handle(EA: in out Emergency_Alert); procedure Display(EA: in Emergency_Alert; On: in Device); end New_Alert_System.Emergency;
We could make the procedure Display visible by declaring it in the visible part; it would still override the inherited version even though the inherited version is private as mentioned in 7.1.1.
There are some application areas where it is useful to impose restrictions on the use of certain features of the language. Thus it might be desirable to know that only certain simple uses of tasking are made in a particular program; this might allow the program to be linked with an especially efficient run-time system for use in a hard real time application. Another area where more severe restrictions are relevant is for safety-critical applications where it is required that application programs are written using only simple parts of the language so that they are more amenable to mathematical proof. Restrictions on the use of the language may be imposed by the pragma Restrictions. The possible arguments to this pragma are defined in the Real-Time Systems and Safety and Security annexes [RM95 D7, H3].
R6.2-A(1) - Data Interoperabilityis partially met by the provision of better control over representations such as the alignment of objects.
The study topic
S6.4-B(1) - Low-Level Pointer Operationsis addressed by the attribute Unchecked_Access and address and offset operations in the package System.Address_To_Access_Conversions.
R4.2-A(1) - Allocation and Reclamation of Storageis met by the storage pool mechanism described in 13.4.