|Ada 95 Quality and Style Guide||Chapter 3|
3.3.1 General Comments
Make the code as clear as possible to reduce the need for comments.
Never repeat information in a comment that is readily available in the code.
Where a comment is required, make it concise and complete.
Use proper grammar and spelling in comments.
Make comments visually distinct from the code.
Structure comments in header so that information can be automatically extracted by a tool.
The structure and function of well-written code is clear without comments. Obscured or badly structured code is hard to understand, maintain, or reuse regardless of comments. Bad code should be improved, not explained. Reading the code itself is the only way to be absolutely positive about what the code does; therefore, the code should be made as readable as possible.
Using comments to duplicate information in the code is a bad idea for several reasons. First, it is unnecessary work that decreases productivity. Second, it is very difficult to correctly maintain the duplication as the code is modified. When changes are made to existing code, it is compiled and tested to make sure that it is once again correct. However, there is no automatic mechanism to make sure that the comments are correctly updated to reflect the changes. Very often, the duplicate information in a comment becomes obsolete at the first code change and remains so through the life of the software. Third, when comments about an entire system are written from the limited point of view of the author of a single subsystem, the comments are often incorrect from the start.
Comments are necessary to reveal information difficult or impossible to obtain from the code. Subsequent chapters of this book contain examples of such comments. Completely and concisely present the required information.
The purpose of comments is to help readers understand the code. Misspelled, ungrammatical, ambiguous, or incomplete comments defeat this purpose. If a comment is worth adding, it is worth adding correctly in order to increase its usefulness.
Making comments visually distinct from the code by indenting them, grouping them together into headers, or highlighting them with dashed lines is useful because it makes the code easier to read. Subsequent chapters of this book elaborate on this point.
The guideline about storing redundant information in comments applies only to manually generated comments. There are tools that automatically maintain information about the code (e.g., calling units, called units, cross-reference information, revision histories, etc.), storing it in comments in the same file as the code. Other tools read comments but do not update them, using the information from the comments to automatically generate detailed design documents and other reports.
The use of such tools is encouraged and may require that you structure your header comments so they can be automatically extracted and/or updated. Beware that tools that modify the comments in a file are only useful if they are executed frequently enough. Automatically generated obsolete information is even more dangerous than manually generated obsolete information because it is more trusted by the reader.
Revision histories are maintained much more accurately and completely by configuration management tools. With no tool support, it is very common for an engineer to make a change and forget to update the revision history. If your configuration management tool is capable of maintaining revision histories as comments in the source file, then take advantage of that capability, regardless of any compromise you might have to make about the format or location of the revision history. It is better to have a complete revision history appended to the end of the file than to have a partial one formatted nicely and embedded in the file header.
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