E.4.2 Example of Use of a Remote Access-to-Class-Wide Type
Example of using
a remote access-to-class-wide type to achieve dynamic binding across
package Tapes is
type Tape is abstract tagged limited private;
-- Primitive dispatching operations where
-- Tape is controlling operand
procedure Copy (From, To : access Tape; Num_Recs : in Natural) is abstract;
procedure Rewind (T : access Tape) is abstract;
-- More operations
type Tape is ...
package Name_Server is
-- Dynamic binding to remote operations is achieved
-- using the access-to-limited-class-wide type Tape_Ptr
type Tape_Ptr is access all Tapes.Tape'Class;
-- The following statically bound remote operations
-- allow for a name-server capability in this example
function Find (Name : String) return Tape_Ptr;
procedure Register (Name : in String; T : in Tape_Ptr);
procedure Remove (T : in Tape_Ptr);
-- More operations
package Tape_Driver is
-- Declarations are not shown, they are irrelevant here
with Tapes, Name_Server;
package body Tape_Driver is
type New_Tape is new Tapes.Tape with ...
(From, To : access New_Tape; Num_Recs: in Natural) is
. . .
procedure Rewind (T : access New_Tape) is
. . .
-- Objects remotely accessible through use
-- of Name_Server operations
Tape1, Tape2 : aliased New_Tape;
Name_Server.Register ("NINE-TRACK", Tape1'Access);
Name_Server.Register ("SEVEN-TRACK", Tape2'Access);
-- Tape_Driver is not needed and thus not mentioned in the with_clause
T1, T2 : Name_Server.Tape_Ptr;
T1 := Name_Server.Find ("NINE-TRACK");
T2 := Name_Server.Find ("SEVEN-TRACK");
Tapes.Copy (T1, T2, 3);
Notes on the example:
Discussion: The example does not show
the case where tapes are removed from or added to the system. In the
former case, an appropriate exception needs to be defined to instruct
the client to use another tape. In the latter, the Name_Server should
have a query function visible to the clients to inform them about the
availability of the tapes in the system.
This paragraph was
The package Tapes provides the necessary declarations
of the type and its primitive operations.
Name_Server is a remote call interface package
and is elaborated in a separate active partition to provide the necessary
naming services (such as Register and Find) to the entire distributed
program through remote subprogram calls.
Tape_Driver is a normal package that is elaborated
in a partition configured on the processing node that is connected to
the tape device(s). The abstract operations are overridden to support
the locally declared tape devices (Tape1, Tape2). The package is not
visible to its clients, but it exports the tape devices (as remote objects)
through the services of the Name_Server. This allows for tape devices
to be dynamically added, removed or replaced without requiring the modification
of the clients' code.
The Tape_Client procedure references only declarations
in the Tapes and Name_Server packages. Before using a tape for the first
time, it needs to query the Name_Server for a system-wide identity for
that tape. From then on, it can use that identity to access the tape
Values of remote access type Tape_Ptr include the
necessary information to complete the remote dispatching operations that
result from dereferencing the controlling operands T1 and T2.
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