There are a number of important changes to the language addressed in this chapter. Many of these are associated with tagged types such as the addition of private extensions. Another important change is the introduction of controlled types which are implemented using tagged types. In summary the changes are
An important change regarding library packages is that they can have a body only when one is required; this is discussed in 10.4.
To allow for the extension of private types, the modifier tagged may be specified in a private type declaration. A tagged private type must be implemented with a tagged record type, or by deriving from some other tagged type.
We considered allowing a tagged private type to be derived from an untagged type. However, this added potential implementation complexity because the parent type might not have a layout optimized for referencing components added in later extensions. There is a simple work-around; the tagged private type can be implemented as a tagged record type with a single component of the desired parent type.
In Ada 95, we consider a private type to be a composite type outside the scope of its full type declaration. This is primarily a matter of presentation.
Although a private tagged type must be implemented as a tagged type, the reverse is not the case. A private untagged type can be implemented as a tagged or untagged type. In other words if the partial view is tagged then the full view must be tagged; if the partial view is untagged then the full view may or may not be tagged. We thus have to be careful when saying that a type is tagged, strictly we should talk about the view being tagged. The relationship between the full and partial view of a type is discussed further in 7.3 when we also consider limited types.
A good example of the use of a tagged type to implement a private type which is not tagged is given by the type Unbounded_String in the package Ada.Strings.Unbounded. The sample implementation discussed in A.2.6 shows how Unbounded_String is controlled and thus derived from Finalization.Controlled.
We have generalized discriminants so that a derived type declaration may include a discriminant part. Therefore, it is now permissible for a private type with discriminants to be implemented by a derived type declaration. This was not possible in Ada 83.
In addition, a discriminant part may be provided in a task or protected type declaration. As a consequence, a limited private type with discriminants may be implemented as a task or protected type.
Another improvement mentioned in II.12 is that a private type without discriminants may now be implemented as any definite type including a discriminated record type with defaulted discriminants.
A tagged (parent) type may be extended with a private extension part. This allows one type to visibly extend another, while keeping the names and types of the components in the extension part private to the package where the extension is defined.
For a private extension in the visible part, a corresponding record extension must be defined in the private part. Note that the record extension part may be simply
with null recordwhich uses an abbreviated form of syntax for null records. This abbreviated form was introduced precisely because null extensions are fairly common.
An extension aggregate is only allowed where the full view of the extended type is visible even if the extension part is null. Note that a private extension may always be (view) converted to its parent type. See also 3.6.1 for the case where the ancestor part is abstract.
The interplay between type extension and visibility is illustrated by the following somewhat contrived example
package P1 is type T is tagged record A: Type_A; end record; type T1 is new T with private; private type T1 is new T with record B: Type_B; end record; end P1; with P1; use P1; package P2 is type T2 is new T1 with record C: Type_C; end record; end P2; with P2; use T2 package body P1 is X1: T1; -- can write X1.B X2: T2; -- cannot write X2.B XX: T1 renames T1(X2); ... XX.B := -- changes B component of X2 end P1;
The type T has a component A. The type T1 is extended from T with the additional component B but the extension is not visible outside the private part and body of P1. The type T2 is in turn extended from T1 with a further component C. However, although T2 has a component B it is not visible for any view of T2, since the declaration of T2 sees only the partial view of its parent T1. So the B component of T2 is not visible in the package body P1 even though that component of its parent is indeed visible from there. But of course we can do a view conversion of an object of the type T2 and then obtain access to the component B provided we are at a place that has the full view of T1.
It is important that the invisible B component of T2 be invisible for all views since otherwise we would run into a problem if the additional component of T2 were also called B (this is allowed because the existing B component is not visible at the point where the additional component is declared and the potential clash could not be known to the writer of P2). But if there were a view such that all components of T2 were visible (such as perhaps might be expected in the body of P1) then X2.B would be ambiguous.
The important general principle is that the view we get of a type is the view relating to the declaration of it that is visible to us rather than simply where we are looking from.
A tagged type may have primitive operations declared in a private part. These operations will then not be available to all views of the type although nevertheless they will always be in the dispatch table. We noted in 3.6.2 that an abstract type can never have private abstract operations.
A private operation can be overridden even if the overriding operation actually occurs at a place where the private operation is not visible. Consider
package P is type A is tagged ...; private procedure Op(X: A); end P; package P.Child is type B is new A with ...; procedure Op(X: B); private -- the old Op would have been visible here end P.Child;
The type A has a private dispatching operation Op. The type B is an extension of A and declares an operation Op. This overrides the private inherited operation of the same name despite the fact that the private operation is not visible at the point of the declaration of the new operation. But the key point is that within the private part of the child package, the old Op would have become visible and this is still within the region where it is possible to add primitive operations for B. It is not possible for both operations to be primitive and visible at the same place and it would be impossible for them to share the same slot in the dispatch table. Accordingly the new operation overrides the old. Moreover, they must conform. For a practical example see 13.5.1.
On the other hand if the new operation is declared at a point such that the visibility of the two never clash in this way such as in the following
package P is type A is tagged ...; procedure Curious(X: A'Class); private procedure Op(X: A); -- first one end P; with P; use P; package Outside is type B is new A with ...; procedure Op(X: B); -- second one end Outside;then the two operations do not clash and occupy different slots in the dispatch table. Moreover they need not conform since they are quite independent. So in fact B does actually have both operations; it inherits the private one from A and has its own different one. We will dispatch to one or the other according to how a dispatching call is made. The first one is of course a dispatching operation of A'Class whereas the second is a dispatching operation of B'Class. The procedure Curious might be
procedure Curious(X: A'Class) is begin Op(X); -- dispatch to first Op end Curious;and then
Object: B; ... Curious(Object);will call the inherited hidden operation of B which will apply itself to the part of B inherited from A. This hidden operation is of course just that inherited from A; it cannot be changed and hence can know nothing of the additional components of B.
Note further that we could declare a further type extension from B at a place where the operation of A is also visible. This could be in the private part of a child of P or in a package inner to the body of P. For example
with Outside; use Outside; package P.Child is private type C is new B with ...; end P.Child;
In such a case C inherits both operations from B in the sense that they both occupy slots in the dispatch table. But again the operation acquired indirectly from A is totally invisible; it does not matter that the operation of A is visible at this point; all that matters is that C cannot see the corresponding operation of B. This is another example of the principle mentioned at the end of the previous section that the view we get of a type is the view relating to the declaration of it that is visible to us rather than where we are looking from; or in other words the history of how B got its operations is irrelevant.
In Ada 83, deferred constants were only permitted in the visible part of a package and only if their type was private and was declared in the same visible part [RM83 7.4(4)].
In Ada 95, this restriction is relaxed, so that a deferred constant of any type may be declared immediately within the visible part of a package, provided that the full constant declaration is given in the private part of the package. This eliminates the anomaly that prevented a constant of a composite type with a component of a private type from being declared, if the composite type was declared in the same visible part as the private type.
Another advantage of deferred constants is that in some cases, the initial value depends on attributes of objects or types that are declared in the private part. For example, one might want to export an access to constant value designating a variable in the private part. This prevents the external user from changing the value although the package of course can change the value. This is another example of having two different views of an entity; in this case a constant view and a variable view.
type Int_Ptr is access constant Integer; The_Ptr: constant Int_Ptr; -- deferred constant private Actual_Int: aliased Integer; -- is a variable so we do not need an initial value The_Ptr: constant Int_Ptr := Actual_Int'Access; -- full definition of deferred constant
Note that a deferred constant can also be completed by an Import pragma thereby indicating that the object is external to the Ada program. See Part Three for details.
A small point regarding deferred constants is that they no longer have to be declared with just a subtype mark; a subtype indication including an explicit constraint is allowed. Such a constraint must statically match that in the full constant declaration.
As in Ada 83, a limited type is one for which assignment is not allowed (user-defined assignment is not allowed either, see 7.4). However, the property of being limited is no longer tied to private types. Any record type can be declared as limited by the inclusion of limited in its definition. Thus the type Outer in 6.4.3 is limited. Task and protected types are also limited and a type is limited if it has any components that are limited. Only a limited type can have access discriminants. Finally, a derived type is limited if its parent is limited.
Limited is a sort of view property in that whether a type is limited or not may depend upon from where it is viewed. This is obvious with a limited private type where the full view might not be limited. However, it can occur even in the nonprivate case. Consider
package P is type T is limited private; type A is array (...) of T; private type T is new Integer; -- at this point A becomes nonlimited end P;where the type A starts off being limited because its components are limited. However, after the full declaration of T, its components are no longer limited and so A becomes nonlimited.
Note that in the case of a tagged type, it must have limited in its definition (or that of its ancestor) if it has limited components. This prevents a tagged type from the phenomenon of becoming nonlimited. Otherwise one might extend from a limited view with a limited component (such as a task) and then in the full view try to do assignment as in the following variation of the previous example.
package P is type T is limited private; type R is tagged -- illegal, must have explicit limited record X: T; end record; private type T is new Integer; -- at this point R would become nonlimited end P; package Q is type T2 is new R with record A: Some_Task; end record; end Q;
The problem is that the body of P would see a nonlimited view of T and hence assignment would be defined for T'Class and so it would be possible to do an assignment on the type T2 by a dispatching operation in the body of P.
So, in the case of a tagged private type (that is a type for which both partial and full views are tagged), both partial and full views must be limited or not together; it is not possible for the partial view to be limited and the full view not to be limited. On the other hand if the partial view is untagged and limited then the full view can be any combination including tagged and nonlimited. The various possibilities are illustrated in Table 7-1; only those combinations marked as OK are legal.
+----------------------------------------------------------+ | | partial view | | full view | untagged | tagged | | | limited |nonlimited| limited |nonlimited| +-----------------------------------------------+----------+ | untagged | O | | | | | limited | K | | | | |--------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | untagged | O | O | | | | nonlimited | K | K | | | |--------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | tagged | O | | O | | | limited | K | | K | | |--------------+----------+----------+----------+----------| | tagged | O | O | | O | | nonlimited | K | K | | K | +----------------------------------------------------------+ Table 7-1: Full and Partial Views
A consequence of the rules is that, in the case of type extension, if the parent type is not limited, then the extension part cannot have any limited components. (Note that the rules regarding actual and formal generic parameters are somewhat different; the actual type corresponding to a formal limited tagged type does not have to be limited. This is because type extension is not permitted in the generic body.)
There was a pathological situation in Ada 83 whereby a function could return a local task (all one could do with it outside was apply the attributes Terminated and Callable); this was a nuisance because all the storage for the local task could not be properly relinquished on the return.
In Ada 95 there is an accessibility check that prevents such difficulties. In essence we are not allowed to return a local object of a limited type (there are some subtle exceptions for which see [RM95 6.5]).
An important consequence of a function result being treated as an object is that it can be renamed. This means that we can "remember" the result of a function even in the case of a limited type. For example, the function Text_IO.Current_Output returns the current default output file. In Ada 83 it was difficult to remember this and then reset the default value back after having used some other file as current output in the meantime; it could be done but only with a contorted use of parameters. In Ada 95 we can write
Old_File: File_Type renames Current_Output; ... Set_Output(Old_File);and the renaming holds onto the object which behaves much as an in parameter. But see also Part Three for a more general solution to the problem of remembering a current file.
To preserve abstraction, while providing automatic reclamation of resources, Ada 95 provides controlled types that have initialization and finalization operations associated with them. A number of different approaches were considered and rejected during the evolution of Ada 95. The final solution has the merit of allowing user-defined assignment and also solves the problem of returning limited types mentioned in the previous section.
The general principle is that there are three distinct primitive activities concerning the control of objects
and the user is given the ability to provide appropriate procedures which are called to perform whatever is necessary at various points in the life of an object. These procedures are Initialize, Finalize and Adjust and take the object as an in out parameter.
To see how this works, consider
declare A: T; -- create A, Initialize(A) begin A := E; -- Finalize(A), copy value, Adjust(A) ... end; -- Finalize(A)
After A is declared and any normal default initialization carried out, the Initialize procedure is called. On the assignment, Finalize is first called to tidy up the old object about to be overwritten and thus destroyed, the physical copy is then made and finally Adjust is called to do whatever might be required for the new copy. At the end of the block Finalize is called once more before the object is destroyed. Note, of course, that the user does not have to physically write the calls of the three control procedures, they are called automatically by the compiled code.
In the case of a nested structure where inner components might themselves be controlled, the rules are that components are initialized and adjusted before the object as a whole and on finalization everything is done in the reverse order.
There are many other situations where the control procedures are invoked such as when calling allocators, evaluating aggregates and so on; for details the reader should consult [RM95].
In order for a type to be controlled it has to be derived from one of two tagged types declared in the library package Ada.Finalization whose specification is given in [RM95 7.6] and which is repeated here for convenience
package Ada.Finalization is pragma Preelaborate(Finalization); type Controlled is abstract tagged private; procedure Initialize(Object: in out Controlled); procedure Adjust(Object: in out Controlled); procedure Finalize(Object: in out Controlled); type Limited_Controlled is abstract tagged limited private; procedure Initialize(Object: in out Limited_Controlled); procedure Finalize(Object: in out Limited_Controlled); private ... end Ada.Finalization;
There are distinct abstract types for nonlimited and limited types. Naturally enough the Adjust procedure does not exist in the case of limited types because they cannot be copied.
Although the types Controlled and Limited_Controlled are abstract, nevertheless the procedures Initialize, Adjust and Finalize are not abstract. However they all do nothing which will often prove to be appropriate.
A typical declaration of a controlled type might take the form
type T is new Controlled with ...and the user would then provide new versions of the controlling procedures as required. Note incidentally that the form of an extension aggregate mentioned in 3.6.1 where the ancestor part is a subtype name is useful for controlled types since we can write
X: T := (Controlled with ...);whereas we cannot use an expression as the ancestor part because its type is abstract.
The capabilities provided take a building block approach and give the programmer fine control of resources. In particular they allow the implementor of an abstraction to ensure that proper cleanup is performed prior to the object becoming permanently inaccessible.
The ability to associate automatic finalization actions with an abstraction is extremely important for Ada, given the orientation toward information hiding, coupled with the many ways that a scope may be exited in Ada (exception, exit, return, abort, asynchronous transfer of control, etc). In many cases, the need for finalization is more of a safety or reliability issue than a part of the visible specification of an abstraction. Most users of an abstraction should not need to know whether the abstraction uses finalization.
A related observation concerns the use of controlled types as generic parameters. We can write a package which adds some properties to an arbitrary controlled type in the manner outlined in 4.6.2. Typically we will call the Finalize of the parent as part of the Finalize operation of the new type. Consider
generic type Parent is abstract new Limited_Controlled with private; package P is type T is new Parent with private; ... private type T is new Parent with record -- additional components end record; procedure Finalize(Object: in out T); end P; package body P is ... procedure Finalize(Object: in out T) is begin ... -- operations to finalize the additional components Finalize(Parent(Object)); -- finalize the parent end Finalize; end P;
This will always work even if the implementation of the actual type corresponding to Parent has no overriding Finalize itself since the inherited null version from Limited_Controlled will then be harmlessly called. See also 12.5.
The approach we have adopted enables the implementation difficulties presented by, for example, exceptions to be overcome. Thus suppose an exception is raised in the middle of a sequence of declarations of controlled objects. Only those already elaborated will need to be finalized and some mechanism is required in order to record this. Such a mechanism can conveniently be implemented using links which are components of the private types Controlled and Limited_Controlled; these components are of course quite invisible to the user. Incidentally, this illustrates that an abstract type need not be null.
The following example is of a generic package that defines a sparse array type. The array is extended automatically as new components are assigned into it. Empty_Value is returned on dereferencing a never- assigned component. On scope exit, automatic finalization calls Finalize, which reclaims any storage allocated to the sparse array.
with Ada.Finalization; use Ada; generic type Index_Type is (<>); -- index type must be some discrete type type Element_Type is private; -- component type for sparse array Empty_Value : in Element_Type; -- value to return for never-assigned components package Sparse_Array_Pkg is -- this generic package defines a sparse array type type Sparse_Array_Type is new Finalization.Limited_Controlled with private; procedure Set_Element(Arr: in out Sparse_Array_Type; Index: in Index_Type; Value: in Element_Type); -- set value of an element -- extend array as necessary function Element(Arr: Sparse_Array_Type; Index: Index_Type) return Element_Type; -- return element of array -- return Empty_Value if never assigned procedure Finalize(Arr: in out Sparse_Array_Type); -- reset array to be completely empty -- use default Initialize implementation (no action) -- no Adjust for limited types private -- implement using a B-tree-like representation type Array_Chunk; -- type completed in package body type Array_Chunk_Ptr is access Array_Chunk; type Sparse_Array_Type is new Finalization.Limited_Controlled with record Number_Of_Levels: Natural := 0; Root_Chunk : Array_Chunk_Ptr; end record; end Sparse_Array_Pkg; package body Sparse_Array_Pkg is type Array_Chunk is ... -- complete the incomplete type definition procedure Set_Element( ... function Element(Arr: Sparse_Array_Type; Index: Index_Type) return Element_Type is begin if Arr.Root_Chunk = null then -- entire array is empty return Empty_Value; else -- look up to see if Index appears -- in array somewhere ... end if; end Element; procedure Finalize(Arr: in out Sparse_Array_Type) is begin if Arr.Root_Chunk /= null then -- release all chunks of array ... -- reinitialize array back to initial state Arr.Root_Chunk := null; Arr.Number_Of_Levels := 0; end if; end Finalize; end Sparse_Array_Pkg;
Since the sparse array type is derived from a library level tagged type (Ada.Finalization.Limited_Controlled), the generic unit must also be instantiated at the library level. However, an object of the sparse array type defined in the instantiation may be declared in any scope. When that scope is exited, for whatever reason, the storage dynamically allocated to the array will be reclaimed, via an implicit call on Sparse_Array_Type.Finalize.
Such a sparse array type may safely be used by subprograms of a long- running program, without concern for progressive loss of storage. When such subprograms return, the storage will always be reclaimed, whether completed by an exception, return, abort, or asynchronous transfer of control.
Our next example illustrates user-defined assignment. Incidentally, it should be noted that many of the cases where user-defined assignment was felt to be necessary in Ada 83 no longer apply because the ability to redefine "=" has been generalized. Many Ada 83 applications using limited types did so in order to redefine "=" and as a consequence lost predefined assignment. Their need for user-defined assignment was simply to get back the predefined assignment.
An instance where user-defined assignment would be appropriate occurs in the implementation of abstract sets using linked lists where a deep copy is required as mentioned in 4.4.3.
The general idea is that the set is implemented as a record containing one inner component which is controlled; this controlled component is an access to a linked list containing the various elements. Whenever the controlled component is assigned it makes a new copy of the linked list. Note that the type Linked_Set as a whole cannot be controlled because it is derived directly from Abstract_Sets.Set. However, assigning a value of the Linked_Set causes the inner component to be assigned and then invokes the procedure Adjust on the inner component. The implementation might be as follows
with Abstract_Sets; with Ada.Finalization; use Ada.Finalization; package Linked_Sets is type Linked_Set is new Abstract_Sets.Set with private; ... -- the various operations on Linked_Set private type Node; type Ptr is access Node; type Node is record Element: Set_Element; Next: Ptr; end record; function Copy(P: Ptr) return Ptr; -- deep copy type Inner is new Controlled with record The_Set: Ptr; end record; procedure Adjust(Object: in out Inner); type Linked_Set is new Abstract_Sets.Set with record Component: Inner; end record; end Linked_Sets; package body Linked_Sets is function Copy(P: Ptr) return Ptr is begin if P = null then return null; else return new Node'(P.Element, Copy(P.Next)); end if; end Copy; procedure Adjust(Object: in out Inner) is begin Object.The_Set := Copy(Object.The_Set); end Adjust; ... end Linked_Sets;
The types Node and Ptr form the usual linked list containing the elements; Node is of course not tagged or controlled. The function Copy performs a deep copy of the list passed as parameter. The type Inner is controlled and contains a single component referring to the linked list. The procedure Adjust for Inner performs a deep copy on this single component. The visible type Linked_Set is then simply a record containing a component of the controlled type Inner. As mentioned above, performing an assignment on the type Linked_Set causes Adjust to be called on its inner component thereby making the deep copy. But none of this is visible to the user of the package Linked_Sets. Observe that we do not need to provide a procedure Initialize and that we have not bothered to provide Finalize although it would be appropriate to do so in order to discard the unused space.
Finally, we show a canonical example of the use of initialization and finalization and access discriminants for the completely safe control of resources. Consider the following:
type Handle(Resource: access Some_Thing) is new Finalization.Limited_Controlled with null record; procedure Initialize(H: in out Handle) is begin Lock(H.Resource); end Initialize; procedure Finalize(H: in out Handle) is begin Unlock(H.Resource); end Finalize; ... procedure P(T: access Some_Thing) is H: Handle(T); begin ... -- process T safely end P;
The declaration of H inside the procedure P causes Initialize to be called which in turn calls Lock with the object referred to by the handle as parameter. The general idea is that since we know that Finalize will be called no matter how we leave the procedure P (including because of an exception or abort) then we will be assured that the unlock operation will always be done. This is a useful technique for ensuring that typical pairs of operations are performed correctly such as opening and closing files. Note that we have to declare the handle locally because that is where the locking is required and hence an access discriminant has to be used in order to avoid accessibility problems. We have to have a handle in the first place so that its declaration is tied to the vital finalization.
Some examples of the use of finalization with asynchronous transfer of control will be found in 9.4.
The major study topic
S4.2-A(2) - Preservation of Abstractionis directly addressed and satisfied by the introduction of controlled types as discussed in 7.4.